The adoption of new technologies and health requirements has led to improved ham quality, but the experience and know-how of ham experts, in a tradition passed down over the centuries from father to son, continues to be essential.
Preparation of hams is a 4-stage process:
- Salting and washing
- Resting period
- Drying and maturation
- Cellar phase (bodega)
Salting and washing. After pigs are slaughtered, hams are covered with sea salt for a week or ten days, depending on weight. Temperature of the room needs to be between 1º and 5º C, and relative humidity is usually kept around 80 or 90%. After this period the hams are washed in lukewarm water to remove salt crystals from the surface.
Resting period. Once washed, the hams are kept for 30 to 60 days in rooms at a temperature between 3º and 6º C and a relative humidity of 80 or 90%. During this period the salt penetrates the pieces uniformly, enhancing dehydration and conservation. This process gives hams a significantly denser consistency.
Drying and maturation. During this period hams are moved to a “secadero”, or natural drying area, where temperature and humidity are controlled, essentially with ventilation mechanisms. Temperature ranges from 15º to 30º C for the 6 to 9 month drying period, during which hams continue to lose moisture, and “sweating” – dissemination of fat throughout the muscle fibres, which then retain the aroma they have acquired – also occurs. The final flavour and aromas begin to develop during this stage, due to a series of changes that occur in the protein and fat of these hams.
Bodega phase. Hams are hung in cellars, or bodegas, for at least 6 and up to a maximum of 30 months. Temperature may range between 10º and 20º C, and relative humidity, between 60 and 80%. During this phase, hams continue to undergo the biochemical processes initiated during the curing process, enhanced by microbial flora which give them their particular aroma and final flavour.
The Producers’ Association is responsible for identifying and branding pigs in their grazing areas, and overseeing their diet during the finishing period. It then monitors slaughter of the animals, and hind leg and shoulder hams are given an indelible, numbered tag, for supervision of the entire maturation process.
Other controls performed verify the saline concentration of brine, and ensure observation of minimum periods for drying, and aging in cellars.
Upon completion of this process, which takes at least 20 months for hind leg and 12 months for shoulder cuts, it is the Producers’ Association which grades and labels these hams before they are shipped to consumers. Labelling (see picture at left) classifies hams into three categories, based on their quality:
Bellota grade: The pig enters the finishing period weighing 80-105 Kilos, and replaces about 60% of its entry weight on a diet of acorns and grasses - Jamón ibérico de bellota
Jamón ibérico de Pata Negra Bellota 7 Bellotas
Recebo grade: The animal replaces about 30% of its entry weight on a diet of acorns and grasses, the remainder of its diet being natural feed authorized by the Producers’ Association - Jamón ibérico de Recebo
Campo grade: The animal has a varied diet, including feeds authorized by the Producers’ Association and herbage from the dehesa pastureland - Jamón ibérico de Campo
Labels may also refer to genetic characteristics of the animal, distinguishing between purebred Iberian Pigs and cross breeds (which are at least 75% Iberian bloodstock).
All of the farms and industries involved in the process of ham production are registered with the Producers’ Association.
Growing and Production Areas
Production of Iberian pork products is widespread throughout Extremadura, making this region the foremost producer in Spain. Here, almost a million hectares of dehesa rangeland are used for grazing by nearly 1500 livestock farms.
The principal production areas are the mountain range of southwestern Badajoz (1), Ibor and Villuercas (2), Southern Gredos (3), Sierra de Montánchez mountains (4) and Sierra de San Pedro mountains (5). It is in these areas that the majority of the hundred or so existing production enterprises are located.
¨the green¨ iberian ham - Jamón ibérico Pata Negra
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iberian ham as one of the traditional the Mediterranean delicacies, its adipose fat but not greasy, offering better flavour and more special taste. in addition, people also think that spanish ham should be the top of the health food.
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